Shanmugam

Oldest Teaching Of Non-duality - Don't Miss!!

20 posts in this topic

Posted (edited)

Upanishads are the basis for Indian schools of thought.  Of this Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and Chandogya upanishad are the oldest. These are the earliest available literature in India which teach non-duality. I have been reading these texts for the past few days and I came across this wonderful section, which is the 6th part of Chandogya Upanishad. I found it very impressive and it brought tears in my eyes as I read it. So, I am sure you will enjoy this as well. I am posting the entire 6th part here...  :)

 

Chapter I − The Non−Duality of the Self


1
Om. There once lived Svetaketu the grandson of Aruna. To him his father said: "Svetaketu,
lead the life of a brahmacharin; for there is none belonging to our family, my dear, who, not
having studied the Vedas, is a brahmin only by birth."
2−3
Svetaketu went to his teacher’s house when he was twelve years old and studied the
Vedas till he was twenty−four. Then he returned to his father, serious, considering himself
well read and arrogant.
His father said to him: "Svetaketu, since you are now so serious, think yourself well read
and are so arrogant, have you, my dear, ever asked for that instruction by which one hears
what cannot be heard, by which one perceives what cannot be perceived, by which one
knows what cannot be known?"
Svetaketu asked: "What is that instruction, venerable Sir?"
4−6
"Just as, my dear, by one clod of clay all that is made of clay is known, the modification
being only a name, arising from speech, while the truth is that all is clay;
"Just as, my dear, by one nugget of gold all that is made of gold is known, the modification
being only a name, arising from speech, while the truth is that all is gold;
"And just as, my dear, by one pair of nail−scissors all that is made of iron is known, the
modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the truth is that all is iron−even
so, my dear, is that instruction."
7
"Surely those venerable men did not know that. For if they had known it, why should they
not have told it to me? Therefore do you, venerable Sir, tell me about it."
"So be it, my dear," said the father.


Chapter II − Brahman: the Cause of the Universe


1
"In the beginning, my dear, this universe was Being (Sat) alone, one only without a second.
Some say that in the beginning this was non−being (asat) alone, one only without a second;
and from that non−being, being was born."
2
Aruni said: "But how, indeed, could it be thus, my dear? How could Being be born from
non−being? No, my dear, it was Being alone that existed in the beginning, one only without
a second.
3
"It (Being, or Brahman) thought: ‘May I be many; may I grow forth.’ It created fire. That fire
thought: ‘May I be many; may I grow forth.’ It created water. That is why, whenever a
person is hot and perspires, water is produced from fire (heat) alone.
4
"That water thought: ‘May I be many; may I grow forth.’ It created food (i.e. earth). That is
why, whenever it rains anywhere, abundant food is produced. From water alone is edible
food produced.

 

Chapter III − The Threefold Development


1
"Of all these living beings, there are only three origins: those born from an egg, those born
from a living being and those born from a sprout.
2 "That Deity thought: ‘Let Me now enter into those three deities by means of this living self
and let Me then develop names and forms.’
3
"That Deity, having thought: ‘Let Me make each of these three tripartite,’ entered into these
three deities by means of the living self and developed names and forms.
4
"It made each of these tripartite; and how these three deities became, each of them,
tripartite, that learn from me now, my dear.


Chapter IV − The Threefold Development further explained


1
"The red colour of gross fire is the colour of the original fire; the white colour of gross fire is
the colour of the original water; the black colour of gross fire is the colour of the original
earth. Thus vanishes from fire what is commonly called fire, the modification being only a
name, arising from speech, while the three colours (forms) alone are true.
2
"The red colour of the sun is the colour of fire, the white the colour of water, the black the
colour of earth. Thus vanishes from the sun what is commonly called the sun, the
modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours alone are true.
3
"The red colour of the moon is the colour of fire, the white the colour of water, the black the
colour of earth. Thus vanishes from the moon what is commonly called the moon, the
modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours alone are true.
4
"The red colour of lightning is the colour of fire, the white the colour of water, the black the
colour of earth. Thus vanishes from lightning what is commonly called lighting, the
modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours alone are true.

5
"It was just through this knowledge that the great householders and great Vedic scholars of
olden times declared: ‘No one can now mention to us anything which we have not heard,
thought of, or known.’ They knew all from these three forms.
6−7


"Whatever, appeared red they knew to be the colour of fire; whatever appeared white they
knew to be the colour of water; whatever appeared black they knew to be the colour of
earth.
"Whatever appeared to be unknown they knew to be the combination of these three deities
(i.e. colours). Now learn from me, my dear, how these three deities, when they reach man,
become each of them tripartite.


Chapter V − The Threefold Nature of Food


1
"Food when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes faeces, what is
medium becomes flesh and what is subtlest becomes mind.
2
"Water when drunk becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes urine, what is
medium becomes blood and what is subtlest becomes prana.
3
"Fire when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes bone, what is medium
becomes marrow and what is subtlest becomes speech.
4
"The mind, my dear, consists of food, the prana of water and speech of heat."
"Please, venerable Sir, instruct me further."
"So be it, my dear"


Chapter VI − The Physical Nature of the Mind, the Prana and Speech


1
"That, my dear, which is the subtlest part of curds rises, when they are churned and
becomes butter.
2
"In the same manner, my dear, that which is the subtlest part of the food that is eaten rises
and becomes mind.
3
"The subtlest part of the water that is drunk rises and becomes prana.
4
"The subtlest part of the fire that is eaten rises and becomes speech.
"Thus, my dear, the mind consists of food, the prana consists of water and speech consists
of fire."
"Please, venerable Sir, instruct me further."
"So be it, my dear"


Chapter VII − How the Mind consists of Food


1
"A person, my dear, consists of sixteen parts. Do not eat any food for fifteen days, but drink
as much water as you like. Since the prana consists of water, it will not be cut off if you
drink water."
2
Svetaketu did not eat any food for fifteen days. Then he came to his father and said: "What,
Sir, shall I recite?"
His father said: "The Rik, Yagus and Saman verses."
He replied: "They do not occur to me, Sir."
3
His father said to him: "Just as, my dear, of a great blazing fire a single coal, the size of a
firefly, may be left, which would not burn much more than that, even so, my dear, of your
sixteen parts only one part is left; and therefore with that one part you do not remember the
Vedas. Now go and eat and you will understand me."
4
Svetaketu ate and approached his father. Then whatever his father asked him, he showed
that he knew it.
5−6
Then his father said to him: "Just as, my dear, of a great lighted fire a single coal the size of
a firefly, if left, may be made to blaze up again by adding grass to it and will thus burn much
more,
"Even so, my dear; of your sixteen parts only one part was left and that, when strengthened
by food, blazed up. With it you now remember the Vedas. Therefore, my dear, the mind
consists of food, the prana consists of water and speech consists of fire."
After that he understood what his father said, yea, he understood it.


Chapter VIII − Concerning Sleep, Hunger, Thirst, and Death


1
Uddalaka the son of Aruna said to his son Svetaketu: "Learn from me, my dear, the true
nature of sleep. When a person has entered into deep sleep, as it is called, then, my dear,
he becomes united with Pure Being (Sat), he has gone to his own Self. That is why they
say he is in deep sleep (svapiti); it is because he has gone (apita) to his own (svam).
2
"Just as a bird tied by a string to the hand of the bird−catcher first flies in every direction
and then finding no rest anywhere, settles down at the place where it is bound, so also the
mind (i.e. the individual soul reflected in the mind), my dear, after flying in every direction
and finding no rest anywhere, settles down in the Prana (i.e. Pure Being); for the mind (the
individual soul) is fastened to the Prana (Pure Being).
3
"Learn from me, my dear, what hunger and thirst are. When a man is hungry, as they say, it
is water that has led (i.e. carried away) what was eaten. Therefore, just as they speak of a
leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so do they speak of water as the leader
of food. So, my dear, know this offshoot (i.e. the body) to have sprung forth from a cause,
for it cannot be without a root.
4
"And where could its root be except in food (earth) ? And in the same way, my dear, as
food too is an offshoot, seek for water as its root. And as water too, my dear, is an offshoot,
seek for fire as its root. And as fire too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for Being (Sat) as its
root. Yes, all these creatures, my dear, have their root in Being, they dwell in Being, they
finally rest in Being.
5
"When a man is said to be thirsty, it is fire that has led (i.e. carried away) what was drunk by
him. Therefore as they speak of a leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so
do they speak of fire as the leader of water. So, my dear, know this offshoot (the body) to
have sprung forth from a cause, for it cannot be without a root.
6
"And where could its root be except in water? And in the same way, my dear, as water is an
offshoot, seek for fire as its root. And as fire too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for Being as
its root. Yes, my dear, all these creatures have their root in Being, they dwell in Being, they
finally rest in Being.
"And how these three deities (fire, water and earth), on reaching a human being, become
each of them tripartite has already been said. When a person departs hence, his speech
merges in his mind, his mind in his prana, his prana in heat (fire) and the heat in the
Highest Being.
7
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self. That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter IX − The Absence of Individuality in Deep Sleep


1−2
"As bees, my dear, make honey by collecting the juices of trees located at different places
and reduce them to one form,
"And as these juices have no discrimination so as to be able to say: ‘I am the juice of this
tree,’ or ‘I am the juice of that tree’−even so, indeed, my dear, all these creatures, though
they reach Pure Being, do not know that they have reached Pure Being.
3
"Whatever these creatures are, here in this world−a tiger, a lion, a wolf, a boar, a worm, a
fly, a gnat, or a mosquito−that they become again.
4
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self. That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter X − The Absence of Particularized Consciousness in Deep Sleep


1−2
"These rivers, my dear, flow−the eastern toward the east and the western toward the west.
They arise from the sea and flow into the sea. Just as these rivers, while they are in the
sea, do not know: ‘I am this river’ or ‘I am that river,’
"Even so, my dear, all these creatures, even though they have come from Pure Being, do
not know that they have come from Pure Being. Whatever these creatures are, here in this
world−a tiger, a lion, a wolf a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito, that they become
again.
3
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self. That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter XI − The Indestructibility of the Jiva


1
"If, my dear, someone were to strike at the root of this large tree here, it would bleed but
live. If he were to strike at the middle, it would bleed but live. If he were to strike at the top, it
would bleed but live. Pervaded by the living self, that tree stands firm, drinking in again and
again its nourishment and rejoicing.
2
"But if the life (i.e. living self) leaves one of its branches, that branch withers; if it leaves a
second, that branch withers; if it leaves a third, that branch withers. If it leaves the whole
tree, the whole three withers.
3
"In exactly the same manner, my dear," said he, "know this: This body dies, bereft of the
living self; but the living self dies not.
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self. That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter XII − The Birth of the Gross from the Subtle


1
"Bring me a fruit of that nyagrodha (banyan) tree."
"Here it is’ venerable Sir." "Break it."
"It is broken, venerable Sir."
"What do you see there?"
"These seeds, exceedingly small,
"Break one of these, my son."
"It is broken, venerable Sir."
"What do you see there?"
"Nothing at all, venerable Sir."
2
The father said: "That subtle essence, my dear, which you do not perceive there−from that
very essence this great nyagrodha arises.
Believe me, my dear.
3
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self. That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter XIII − The Invisibility of an Existent Object


1
"Place this salt in water and then come to me in the morning."
The son did as he was told.
The father said to him: "My son, bring me the salt which you placed in the water last night."
Looking for it, the son did not find it, for it was completely dissolved.
2
The father said: "My son, take a sip of water from the surface. How is it?"
"It is salt."
"Take a sip from the middle. How is it?"
"It is salt."
"Take a sip from the bottom. How is it?"
"It is salt."
"Throw it away and come to me."
The son did as he was told, saying: "The salt was there all the time."
Then the father said: "Here also, my dear, in this body you do not perceive Sat (Being); but
It is indeed there."
3
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That

is the Self That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter XIV − The Means of Self−Knowledge


1
"Just as someone, my dear, might lead a person, with his eyes covered, away from the
country of the Gandharas and leave him in a place where there were no human beings; and
just as that person would turn toward the east, or the north, or the south, or the west,
shouting: ‘I have been brought here with my eyes covered, I have been left here with my
eyes covered!’
2
"And as thereupon someone might loosen the covering and say to him: ‘Gandhara is in that
direction; go that way’; and as thereupon, having been informed and being capable of
judgement, he would, by asking his way from one village to another, arrive at last at
Gandhara−in exactly the same manner does a man who has found a teacher to instruct him
obtain the true knowledge. For him there is delay only so long as he is not liberated from
the body; then he reaches perfection.
3
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son.
"So be it, my dear," the father replied.


Chapter XV − Ultimate Liberation


1
"Around a dying person afflicted with illness, my dear, his relatives gather and ask: ‘Do you
know me? Do you know me?’ He knows them as long as his speech is not merged in his
mind, his mind in his prana (breath), his prana in heat (fire) and the heat in the Highest
Deity.
2
"But when his speech is merged in his mind, his mind in his prana, his prana in heat and
the heat in the Highest Deity, then he does not know them.
3
"Now, that which is the subtle essence−in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That
is the Self. That thou art, Svetaketu."
"Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction," said the son
"So be it, my dear;" the father replied.


Chapter XVI − Liberation for the Knower of Brahman


1
"My dear, they (i.e. the police) bring a man whom they have seized by the hand and say:
‘He has taken something, he has committed a theft.’ When he denies it, they say: ‘Heat the
axe for him.’ If he has committed the theft but denies it, then he makes himself a liar. Being
false−minded, he covers himself with falsehood, grasps the heated axe and is burnt. Then
he is killed.
2
"But if he did not commit the theft, then he makes himself what he really is. Being
true−minded, he covers himself with truth, grasps the heated axe and is not burnt. He is
released.
3
"As that truthful man is not burnt so also one who has known Sat is not born again. Thus in
That (Sat) all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art,
Svetaketu."

Source: http://www.consciouslivingfoundation.org/ebooks/13/CLF-chhandogya_upanishad.pdf

Edited by Shanmugam
0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
8 minutes ago, Shanmugam said:

my dear, who, not
having studied the Vedas, is a brahmin only by birth." / Oldest Teaching Of Non-duality

Vedas were the oldest , was there any teaching Of Non-duality in Vedas ?

1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

@Prabhaker  There may be bits and pieces in the ritualistic portion.. Major Upanishads have been included as a part of Vedas, grouped under Jnana Khanda... The ritualistic portion is called Karma Khanda...This Chandogya Upanishad belongs to Sama Veda... So, what you are reading here is indeed a part of Vedas..

1

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Posted (edited)

Cool.  I'm reading the Upanishads right now.

Not all schools of Vedanta are non-dual:

Some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta include Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualism), and Dvaita (dualism).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanta

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishishtadvaita

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvaita_Vedanta

Edited by Joseph Maynor
2

Visualize all the big changes you are going to make in your life and what it’s going to be like.  Visualize the results of achieving your life-purpose.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

"As people who do not know the spot where a treasure of gold has been hidden somewhere in the earth, walk over it again and again without finding it, so all these creatures day after day go into the World of Brahman and yet do not find it, because they are carried away by untruth.

-  Chandogya Upanishad, Part 8, Chapter 3, Verse 2

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

@Joseph Maynor  I saw one of your threads in which you asked about heart, as the seat of self, quoted by Ramana...

Here is a verse from Chandogya Upanishad (Part 8, Chapter 3, Verse 3)

"That Self abides in the heart. The etymological explanation of heart is this: This one (ayam) is in the heart (hridi); therefore It is called the heart (hridayam). He who knows this goes every day in deep sleep to Heaven (i.e. Brahman, dwelling in the heart)."

Also, I remember Ramana saying that there is a knot in the heart which binds the ultimate with the body, and the ego actually arises from the knot. 

"The idea that one is one’s body is what is called hridaya-granthi (knot of the heart). Of the various knots this knot, which binds together what is conscious with what is insentient, is what causes bondage. - http://sri-ramana-maharshi.blogspot.in/2008/04/revisions-to-spiritual-instruction.html"

But this knot is not anatomical. Probably, the hard problem of consciousness has got something to do with this knot, as it binds the non-physical with the physical.

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
31 minutes ago, Joseph Maynor said:

Cool.  I'm reading the Upanishads right now.

Not all schools of Vedanta are non-dual:

Some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta include Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualism), and Dvaita (dualism).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanta

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishishtadvaita

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvaita_Vedanta

Yes, because they interpreted Upanishads in different ways... There is a book called Brahmasutras which put together the essence of Upanishads in sutras... Sutras are like formulas, they have to be interpreted in the right way...

Each of the sub-school that you mentioned was started by an acharya (teacher) who wrote commentaries on Brahmasutras, interpreting them in different ways, which formed the basis of different sub-schools of Vedanta. Shankara also wrote a commentary, which became Advaita Vedanta.

While the interpretations are different, all six schools of India (samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya etc) and all sub-schools of Vedanta (the ones you have mentioned) accept Upanishads as a means of Knowledge. Three important means of knowledge in Indian epistemology (but Vedanta has 6 means of Knowledge) are perception, inference and scriptural testimony. 

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

No one else had to say anything on this post? :o

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
57 minutes ago, Shanmugam said:

No one else had to say anything on this post? :o

one must search within himself the wisdom to say or write such things.

i myself had a phase in which i wanted to read all the buddhist suttas. it only lasted 3 days before i realized the non-sense behind the attempt to attain wisdom by reading any kind of scripture written by anyone else.

1

presence for an empty mind
compassion for a light heart
Life is the highest art

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
58 minutes ago, Shanmugam said:

No one else had to say anything on this post? 

Modern man don't like this type of teachings.

Om. There once lived Svetaketu the grandson of Aruna. To him his father said: "Svetaketu,
lead the life of a brahmacharin; for there is none belonging to our family, my dear, who, not
having studied the Vedas, is a brahmin only by birth.

They like new age teachers who can give them some consolation like ; you are already enlightened ; you can become enlightened right now ; there is nothing mysterious in enlightenment, it is just change of perspective etc.

1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Interestingly, while reading a book I highly recommend (Sapiens), it seems as Indo-aryans went into India, built the caste system. On wikipedia it says they wrote the Vedas.

Although most if it is probably useless for one's own awakening, it is nonetheless interesting from a historical perspective to see the first writing of for example non-duality. Of course not probably everything is useless, there might be for example meditation techniques?

0

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Posted (edited)

3 hours ago, ajasatya said:

one must search within himself the wisdom to say or write such things.

i myself had a phase in which i wanted to read all the buddhist suttas. it only lasted 3 days before i realized the non-sense behind the attempt to attain wisdom by reading any kind of scripture written by anyone else.

thats true...

I am reminded about the following verses from Vivekachudamani:

Loud speech in a stream of words, the efficiency in expounding or commenting upon the scriptures, erudition—these bring only a little joyous, material satisfaction to the scholar; but they are insufficient to bring about liberation. - verse 58

Without knowing the supreme Reality, the study of the scriptures is futile. Having known the supreme Reality, the study of the scriptures is equally futile - - verse 59

The labyrinth of words is a thick jungle which causes the mind to wander, in its own confusion. Therefore, true seekers of Brahman should earnestly set about to experience the Real Nature of the Self. - verse 60

However, I was surprised because of an absence of replies from other people because they all engage in a lot of contemplative and philosophical questions about the nature of reality anyway... The above excerpt from Chandogya Upanishad has many excellent analogies in pointing out the truth which will help many people.. Also, It deserves an appreciation because of its rebellious nature and the fact that it taught something about ultimate reality at the time when people were engaged in rituals like sacrificing animals and plants in fire.

It is good for people to know the source of all the teachings that they hear today in the name of non-duality.The saying 'You are that' (tat tvam asi) actually comes from this text, specifically from the story that you read above. (Notice how many times the phrase 'That thou art,' is repeated in the text).

Edited by Shanmugam
0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
36 minutes ago, Outer said:

Interestingly, while reading a book I highly recommend (Sapiens), it seems as Indo-aryans went into India, built the caste system. On wikipedia it says they wrote the Vedas.

Although most if it is probably useless for one's own awakening, it is nonetheless interesting from a historical perspective to see the first writing of for example non-duality. Of course not probably everything is useless, there might be for example meditation techniques?

Yes,  actually much of the Chandogya Upanishad is nothing but poems praising Vedas.. And much of Vedas has to do with sacrificing animals and grains in fire to manipulate natural forces so that one can get more cattle, rainfall, children, wealth etc. It is this one part which is very interesting.

However, In Shankara's commentary you will find that he says even the other parts are useful, as they are actually a form of meditation technique called Upasana. For me, most of his commentary seem to justify the eternal and infallible nature of Vedas, which I can't agree with.

But reading the history of how non-dual teachings emerged is interesting, as you said. I have a lot of interest on that.

Also, even if you don't remember Isaac Newton, gravitation will still work. But we still appreciate him and remember him because he was the one who first explained it.

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Posted (edited)

An excerpt from Kena Upanishad:

A teacher tells a student about Brahman:

" It is the Ear of the ear, the Mind of the mind, the Speech of speech, the Life of life, and the Eye of the eye. Having detached the Self from the sense−organs and renounced the world, the Wise attain to Immortality.

The eye does not go thither, nor speech, nor the mind. We do not know It; we do not understand how anyone can teach It. It is different from the known; It is above the unknown. Thus we have heard from the preceptors of old who taught It to us.

That which cannot be expressed by speech, but by which speech is expressed−That alone know as Brahman, and not that which people here worship.

That which cannot be apprehended by the mind, but by which, they say, the mind is apprehended−That alone know as Brahman, and not that which people here worship.

 That which cannot be perceived by the eye, but by which the eye is perceived−That alone know as Brahman, and not that which people here worship. 

 That which cannot he heard by the ear, but by which the hearing is perceived−That alone know as Brahman, and not that which people here worship. 

 That which cannot be smelt by the breath, but by which the breath smells an object−That alone know as Brahman, and not that which people here worship."

Edited by Shanmugam
0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
14 hours ago, Shanmugam said:

No one else had to say anything on this post? :o

😂 The Upanishads is on my book list, which only seems to grow these days. I will write to you when/if I get to it.

I am also very interested on reading Liberation in one lifetime- Milarepa and Ramayana. Have you read these as well ? 

Yes, I am very curious to learn more theory and ancient tales, but ultimately we know they are a distraction. 

 

1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

@Dizzy  You can actually get Upanishads for free in pdf format online... Many of the Upanishads are very small, spanning only 4-5 pages, except Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishad, which are large... It may be difficult to understand certain concepts, but give it a try... Also, a lot of hymns in Upanishads are either just praises (eulogy)  or about a certain meditation called Upasana. I am still doing research on Upasana and how they are described. 

Here is Briharanyaka upanishad with translation: http://www.consciouslivingfoundation.org/ebooks/13/CLF-brihadaranyaka_upanishad.pdf

Meanings of some words can vary according to the context and some words can be wrongly translated. So, it may be useful to read it with Shankara's commentary.. 

Here is the version with Shankara's commentary: https://archive.org/download/Brihadaranyaka.Upanishad.Shankara.Bhashya.by.Swami.Madhavananda/Brihadaranyaka.Upanishad.Shankara.Bhashya.by.Swami.Madhavananda.pdf

If you still find it difficult, you can refer the modern version: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/brhad_00.html . This is a discourse given by Swami Krishnananda. However, I am not sure about the quality of his interpretation.

You can search for the pdf version for any Upanishad online. But stick with only the important 13 upanishads. (There are 108 upanishads in total).. Only those 13 of the 108 are considered as important and have been cited by many important people. All others are modern creations (written after 800 AD to 1800 AD probably) which have been written with different intentions..

I have read Ramanayana but not about Milarepa. Ramayana is very popular in India. Everyone knows the story and  many people have read the whole book.

 

1

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Katha Upanishad - Verse 1.2.20

 "Subtler than the subtle, greater than the great, in the heart of each living being, the âtman (self) reposes. One free from desire, with his mind and the senses composed, sees the glory of the âtman and becomes absolved from grief."

Shankara’s Commentary:

How then does one know the âtman is explained? Subtler than the subtle, i.e., subtler than grain, etc.; greater than the great, i.e., greater than things of great dimensions, such as the earth (whatever thing is in the world, that is known to exist only by virtue of the eternal âtman; divorced from the âtman it becomes a non-entity; therefore, this âtman alone is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great, because all names, forms and actions are only conditions imposed upon it).

This âtman is seated, as the âtman, in the heart of every living creature, irons Brahma down to the worm. That âtman to whose realization, hearing, thought and meditation are indicated as aids; one free from desire, i.e., one whose intelligence has been diverted from all external objects, either of this world or of the world to come (when he is so,—the mind and the senses which are called Dhâtus.—because they support the body, become composed); sees, i.e., directly realizes, in the form ‘I am he’, the glory of the âtman, devoid of increase or diminution due to Karma; and, therefore, he becomes absolved from grief.

(Note: the word atman and brahman both are the same.. atman is usually translated to 'soul' in English, but it is not really an entity like 'soul')

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

More from Katha Upanishad - 2.2.11 - 2.2.15

11 As the sun, which helps all eyes to see, is not affected by the blemishes of the eyes or of the external things revealed by it, so also the one Atman, dwelling in all beings, is never contaminated by the misery of the world, being outside it.

12 There is one Supreme Ruler, the inmost Self of all beings, who makes His one form manifold. Eternal happiness belongs to the wise, who perceive Him within themselves−not to others.

13 There is One who is the eternal Reality among non−eternal objects, the one truly conscious Entity among conscious objects and who, though non−dual, fulfills the desires of many. Eternal peace belongs to the wise, who perceive Him within themselves−not to others.

14 The sages realize that indescribable Supreme Joy as "This is That." How can I realize It? Is It self−luminous? Does It shine brightly, or not?

15 The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings−not to speak of this fire. He shining, everything shines after Him. By His light all this is lighted

0

Shanmugam

http://nellaishanmugam.wordpress.com

When I say 'enlightenment' or 'liberation', this is what I mean: Losing the sense of duality i.e the sense of having a separate identity distinct from the rest of the universe.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!


Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.


Sign In Now